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Another cause of confusion (at the time of this publication) is the shortage of penicillin procaine and benzathine.

Although HIV treatment will not be discussed in this article, it is another STD that can have a detrimental impact on patients, especially those who are unaware of the risks of contracting the disease.

Pharmacists should know that patients with some STDs described in this article are at a higher risk of contracting HIV.

The updated CDC guidelines also have new recommendations for the HPV vaccination to prevent HPV-associated precancers and cancers.

Oncogenic strains 16 and 18 account for 66% of all cervical cancers, and strains 6 and 11 are nononcogenic, but still cause 90% of genital warts.

Other populations at an increased risk of contracting STDs include racial or ethnic minorities, men who have sex with men (MSM), intravenous drug abusers, those with multiple sexual partners, individuals who fail to use barrier protection consistently or correctly, anyone biologically susceptible to infection, and those without accessible health care.

Pharmacists can play a pivotal role in reducing transmission and increasing the likelihood of bacterial cure through patient counseling and ensuring appropriate pharmacotherapy.Since 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project has been monitoring trends in susceptibilities of urethral N gonorrhoeae strains in the United States to help guide the most up-to-date treatment recommendations.has successfully developed resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones.HPV vaccines are recommended for girls and women aged 11 to 26 years, and Gardasil is recommended for boys and men aged 11 to 21 years.That limit extends to age 26 in HIV-positive boys and men or MSM.Pharmacists should instruct providers to use benzathine penicillin IM as recommended for primary, secondary, tertiary, and latent syphilis because it is longer acting compared with procaine penicillin.Aqueous crystalline penicillin G is recommended for ocular syphilis or neurosyphilis because of its ability to penetrate the central nervous system and ocular space.Left untreated, STDs may lead to the development of serious conditions, including pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancies.Analyses from 2013 show an incidence of 19 million STDs annually, with individuals aged 15 to 24 years making up almost half of newly acquired infections.This article discusses some of the most common STDs and specific recommendations for how pharmacists can make a positive impact in the prevention and treatment of these diseases.According to the CDC, some of the most common STDs in the United States include chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human papillomavirus (HPV).

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